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袁大头

时间:2020-07-04 16:39 点击: 未知次

袁大头是民国时期主要流通货币之一,"袁大头"是对袁世凯像系列硬币的口语俗称,严谨点说叫"袁世凯像背嘉禾银币"。北洋政府为了整顿币制,划一银币,于民国十年(1914年)二月,颁布《国币条例》十三条,决定实行银本位制度。《国币条例》规定:"以库平纯银六钱四分八厘为价格之单位,定名为圆","一圆银币,总重七钱二分,银八九,铜一一","一圆银币用数无限制",即以一圆银币为无限法偿的本位贷币。根据这一规定,于1914年12月及1915年2月, 先后由造币总厂及江南造币厂开铸一圆银币,币面镌刻袁世凯头像,俗称"袁头币"或"袁大头"。

Yuan Datou was one of the main currency in circulation during the period of the Republic of China. "Yuan Datou" is a colloquial term for Yuan Shikai's series of coins. To be precise, it is called "Yuan Shikai carrying Jiahe silver coin". In order to rectify the currency system, the Beiyang government issued 13 articles of the national currency regulations in February 1914, and decided to implement the silver standard system. According to the national currency regulations, "the unit price of Kuping pure silver is 6.4% and 8.0%, and it is named as Yuan", "one yuan silver coin, with a total weight of 7.2 cents, silver of 89, and copper of 11." there is no limit on the amount of one yuan silver coin, that is, one yuan silver coin is the standard loan currency with unlimited legal compensation. According to this rule, in December 1914 and February 1915, the general mint and Jiangnan Mint successively issued a silver coin with the head of Yuan Shikai engraved on its face, commonly known as "Yuan tou coin" or "yuan Datou".

铸造跨度从1914年至1929年,总发行量超过7.5 亿枚。该系列币分别重26.6克、13.3克、5.3克和2.6克;成色分别为89.1%、84.5%、80.4%和82.5%;该币的外环主要是直齿边,另外,还铸有少量工字边和花齿边。

The casting span was from 1914 to 1929, with a total circulation of more than 750 million pieces. The coins of this series weigh 26.6 g, 13.3 g, 5.3 g and 2.6 g respectively; the fineness is 89.1%, 84.5%, 80.4% and 82.5%; the outer ring of the coin is mainly straight tooth edge, and there are a few I-shaped edge and flower tooth edge.

清代国币称为龙洋,以银币为主币,主要有光绪元宝、大清银币、宣统元宝等,总重量为(26.3--27克),含纯银六钱四分八厘(25.7856808克),其含银量89%进行铸造 。

The Qing Dynasty national currency is called Longyang, with silver coins as the main currency, mainly including Guangxu Yuanbao, Daqing silver coin, Xuantong Yuanbao, etc., with a total weight of (26.3-27 g), containing six quarters of pure silver (25.7856808 g), and its silver content is 89%.

清朝灭亡之后,1912年4月袁世凯出任大总统。北洋政府鉴于当时铸币、纸币十分复杂,流通的中外货币在百种以上,规格不一,流通混乱,折算繁琐,民众积怨,同时也想借助货币改制以解决军费问题,便决定铸发国币。袁世凯为了提高自己的统治地位,把他的头像铸于币面,"袁大头"由此而来。

After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Yuan Shikai became president in April 1912. In view of the complexity of the coinage and paper money at that time, there were more than 100 kinds of Chinese and foreign currencies in circulation, with different specifications, disorderly circulation, complicated conversion, and people's resentment. At the same time, they also wanted to solve the military expenditure problem by means of currency reform, so they decided to issue national currency. In order to improve his ruling position, Yuan Shikai cast his head on the coin face, and "yuan Dadou" came from it.

1914年2月7日,袁世凯以大总统令形式公布了《国币条例》及《国币条例施行细则》,其主要内容是规定钱币的铸造发行权归民国政府所有,原先的各个官局所铸造发行的1元银元,由民国政府兑换并改铸,在一点的时期内,承认它们的价值等同于国币1元的价值。国币中的主币是1元银元,其重量是库平纯银6钱4分零8毫(6.408钱),材质是银占89%,铜占10%,锡占1%,一枚成品银元的重量是7钱2分。规定国币种类有银币4种(壹圆、中圆、贰角、壹角)、镍币一种(五分)、铜币五种(二分、一分、五厘、二厘、一厘)。正面镌袁世凯侧面头像及发行年号,背面铸嘉禾纹饰与币值。《国币条例》公布同年先在天津造币厂铸造"袁大头"壹圆银币,后在南京、广东、武昌等造币厂陆续铸造。

On February 7, 1914, Yuan Shikai promulgated the national currency regulations and the detailed rules for the implementation of the national currency regulations in the form of a presidential decree. The main content of the regulations is to stipulate that the right to issue coins should be owned by the government of the Republic of China. The government of the Republic of China will exchange and change the original silver dollar issued by various government bureaus. In a certain period of time, they are recognized as having a value equal to 1 yuan of national currency. The main currency of the national currency is 1 yuan silver yuan, which weighs 6.408 yuan of pure silver in Kuping. The material is silver 89%, copper 10%, tin 1%. The weight of a finished silver dollar is 7 coins and 2 cents. According to the regulations, there are four kinds of national currency: silver coin (one yuan, medium dollar, two jiao and one jiao), one nickel coin (five cents) and five copper coins (two cents, one cent, five percent, two percent and one percent). On the obverse side, Yuan Shikai's profile head and issue year number are engraved, and on the back are Jiahe ornaments and currency value. In the same year, yuan Datou was first minted at Tianjin mint, and then successively minted in Nanjing, Guangdong, Wuchang and other mints.

当时钱币的换算关系和人民币一样,以十进位,1元等于十北洋造币厂角,一角等于十分,一分等于十厘。自从《国币条例》公布以后,天津造币厂就开始铸造袁大头1元银元,后来,南京、广东、武昌等造币厂也都开始陆续铸造发行袁大头银元。由于袁大头1元银元币型规整,图案新颖,有明确的重量和成色,容易识别,因此,袁大头银元很快就被老百姓接受,并很快在全国的范围内流通。因袁大头壹圆银币币型划一,成色、重量有严格规定,很快受到了社会认同和接受,在国内金融市场上逐步取代了清朝的龙洋,成为流通领域的主币。

At that time, the conversion relationship of coins was the same as that of RMB. In decimal places, 1 yuan was equal to 10 Beiyang Mint horn, 1 jiao was equal to 10%, and 1 Fen was equal to 10%. Since the promulgation of the national currency regulations, Tianjin Mint began to cast yuan Datou 1 yuan silver yuan. Later, Nanjing, Guangdong, Wuchang and other mints began to issue yuan Datou silver yuan successively. Due to the regular type, novel design, clear weight and color, easy to identify, yuan Datou silver dollar was quickly accepted by the people and circulated throughout the country. Because yuan Datou's one yuan silver coin was uniform in type, strict in quality and weight, it was quickly recognized and accepted by the society. It gradually replaced Longyang in the Qing Dynasty in the domestic financial market and became the circulation field

此枚袁大头是王先生收藏的珍品,该枚钱币材质为铜,钱币正面中华民国三年直读,背面壹圆,穿廓异常规整,穿口修直,边缘宽扩;文字极为端美,楷书体书意典范,字口清晰,字韵盈溢;钱体浑厚沉稳,包浆浓郁自然。钱文精美,字口深峻,每个字的笔画都非常清晰,绝无粘连模糊,而且笔画比同版本的流通钱要细瘦,从细部看还保有手工镂刻的痕迹。此枚古钱铜制精良,铸造工艺也非常精美,形制规整,十分精致美观。

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